X told A that ‘this’ is white
X told B that ‘this’ is white
X told C that ‘this’ is white

W tells everyone that ‘this’ is purple

Z tells everyone that ‘this’ can not be purple and that all are in agreement that ‘this’ is white and that X NEVER told anybody that ‘this’ was purple.

Z warns everybody that W is renegade and is not following what A,B,and C said.

Z reinterates that what was told by X to A,B, and C is the truth and that W has changed the words of X

Z reminds them that he is not making this up because everyone from A up to W has always believed that ‘this’ was white

Z tells them that he is the last one that X will tell this to so that they should listen to him.

Z gives evidence and exact quotes from X to proove his points

Y insist that they believe W and that if you don’t believe W then you do not really believe what X said.



Deductive reasoning

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Deductive reasoning, sometimes called deductive logic, is reasoning which uses deductive arguments to move from given statements (premises) to conclusions, which must be true if the premises are true.[1] An example of deductive reasoning, given by Aristotle, is

  • All men are mortal. (major premise)
  • Socrates is a man. (minor premise)
  • Socrates is mortal. (conclusion)

Everyone who says ‘this’ was white speaks the truth
Z says this is white
Z speaks the truth


If anyone says that ‘this’ is anything other than purple they are lying

W said ‘this’ is purple

W is a liar

Deductive logic

Deductive reasoning is supported by deductive logic, for example, the following is a valid deduction:

All animals are mortal
All humans are animal
Therefore all humans are mortal (copi, logic)

Note that the validity of deduction is not affected by the truth of the premise or the truth of the conclusion. The following deduction is perfectly valid:

All fire-breathing rabbits live on Mars
All humans are fire-breathing rabbits
Therefore all humans live on Mars

The argument, however, is not sound. In order for a deductive argument to be sound, the deduction must be valid and the premise must be true.

Valid Deduction

Whoever follows A, B , C and Z are followers of the truth

We follow A,B, C and Z

Therefore, we follow the truth


Whoever rejects truth follows falsehood

You reject truth

You follow falsehood

Unsound Arguement

W was inspired to say ‘this’ is purple

We have faith and believe W

Therefore, ‘this’ is purple


Z is a fake

You shouldn’t believe Z

Therefore, ‘this’ is purple